Adhyatma

Sri Shankara Bhagavadpadha – Nirvana Shataka Sloka3 Explanation


श्री गुरुभ्यॊ नमः श्री परम गुरुभ्यॊ नमः श्री परमॆष्ठि गुरुभ्यॊ नमः

शान्ता विमला प्रकाशा आत्मा गुहा चिद् यॊगास्य श्री परानन्दादि सद्गुरून् नमाम्यहं पुनः पुनः

न मे द्वेषरागौ न मे लोभमोहौ
मदो नैव मे नैव मात्सर्यभावः ।
न धर्मो न चार्थो न कामो न मोक्षः
चिदानंदरूपः शिवोऽहं शिवोऽहम् ॥ ३॥

na me dvesha ragau na me lobha mohau
na me vai mado naiva matsarya bhavaha
na dharmo na chartho na kamo na mokshaha
chidananda rupah shivoham shivoham !! 3 !!

Likes and dislikes belong to the mind or Jeeva and not to Atman that we are and so we negate all the likes and dislikes. Besides, as a sadhana, one must not have strong likes and dislikes and must try to minimize and also transcend them. But in any case, Atman or Brahman is beyond likes and dislikes. Similarly, Greed and infatuation also belong to the Jeeva and not to Atman.
One MUST NOT think that one can keep greed and infatuation and simply affirm that one is beyond these weaknesses. One must sincerely try to overcome greed and attachment and simultaneously affirm that one is beyond them. If one is under the influence of greed and attachment, then how can one also say that one is not having greed and delusion? So, effort or sadhana is necessary to go beyond them.
Pride comes when one gets recognition in society or is praised for ones good qualities, or wealth, etc. But such qualities and wealth belong only to the Jeeva or mind which I am not. Since, I am Atman, I am truly beyond pride. So is the case with Jealousy.

: Neither have I hatred nor desire (for anything), neither have I greed nor delusion, nor pride and nor even the feelings of jealousy. Neither have I (a need for or obligation towards) Dharma (i.e. practicing duties and righteousness), nor (towards) Artha ( i.e. procuring material wellness), nor towards Kama (i.e. fulfilling desires), nor towards Moksha (i.e. attaining Liberation-freedom from birth and death). I am Shiva (Auspiciousness) of the nature of Consciousness and Bliss.

Analysis of Verse 3: After explaining that Atman is devoid of any bodies or any sheaths, now Adi Shankaracharya explains about the state of Jnani who has realized Atman.

na me dvesha ragau na me lobha mohau na me vai mado naiva matsarya bhavaha न मे द्वेष रागौ न मे लोभ मोहौ मदो नैव मे नैव मात्सर्यभा- व:- Neither have I hatred nor desire (for anything), neither have I greed nor delusion, nor pride and nor even the feelings of jealousy. Lust, hatred, delusion, pride, jealousy, and greed these six are called as Arishadvargas- the six passions of mind because, all these feelings have their source in mind and also affect one’s mind. They are also called as Shad Ripus- the six internal enemies because, they are the impurities present in an Individual which makes an Individual act in a wrong and adharmic way. A person under the influence of these internal enemies commits Papam-Sins and hence would suffer as a result sorrow and pains (Dukka) thereby increasing the bondage to Samsara/World. But, Atman being devoid of any limitations or any bodies is also devoid of these six passions. Hence, a Jivanmukta, who has achieved Atma Jnana-Realized the Self, would be free from these internal passions of mind. A Jnani neither acts out of lust, nor out of hatred, or pride or jealousy. A Jnani having realized that the whole world is in his Atman and his Atman is in whole world (3), he always maintains Sama-drishti i.e.same-sightedness towards everyone.

na dharmo na chartho na kamo na mokshaha न धर्मो न चार्थो न कामो ना मोक्ष:- Neither have I (a need for or obligation towards) Dharma, nor (towards) Artha, nor towards Kama nor towards Moksha. Dharma, Artha Kama and Moksha form the four-fold Purusharthas, the objectives of Human life. In context of an individual, Dharma refers to living one’s life according to tenets mentioned in the Shastras like Satya/Truthfulness, Asteya/Non-stealing, Ahimsa/Non-violence, Shaucha/cleanliness etc and performing Karmas and duties towards family and society as enjoined in the Shastras to the best of one’s ability and avoiding those actions that are prohibited in the Shastras like homicide, stealing etc. “Artha” refers to the wealth (both material and heavenly) one must attain through proper dharmic means, free from corruption and dishonesty. “Kaama” refers to any desires and dreams an Individual has. Those desires must be fulfilled through Dharmic means and not by resorting to adharmic means. These three refers to the goals pertaining to one’s immediate life. The ultimate goal of life is “Moksha” or liberation from Karmic cycle of birth and death. The practice of Dharma, Artha, Kaama sincerely by performing all Karmas prescribed in the Shastras (Karma Anushtana) and the practice of Bhakti (meditations etc) as advised in the Shastras would eventually lead a person to purification of his mind and then through the practice of Jnana-Sadhana, one would achieve Atma Jnana and Moksha.

Hence, these objectives of life are prescribed for an individual who is living in the Samsara, and bound by it. On the other hand, a Jnani who has attained Atma-Jnana and has realized that Atman is everything and nothing else is left to be attained. Hence, a Jnani is no longer bound by any obligations to perform or attain any of the Purusharthas as he has already attained everything that was there to attain.

Now, there are 4 Purusharths or human goals which the scriptures talk about. They are
1) Dharma or Duty,2) Atha or wealth,3) Kama or Pleasure4) Moskha or Liberation.
Every human being has some duty or the other which keeps him on the move throughout the day. But these duties pertain only to the Jeeva or mind. The Self that we are is actionless and changeless and so is beyond all the duties of the Jeeva. So, one must perform all of ones duties and also remember that such duties do not or atleast should not bind the Self or Atman that we are.
Similarly Wealth and Pleasure acquired and enjoyed in accordance with dharma or righteousness are also mentioned as goals. However, these 2 goals are considered to be temporary and therefore inferior goals. One must acquire only limited wealth and must enjoy pleasures also only in accordance with the principles of shastras and norms of society.
The Final and most important goal of life is Moksha or Liberation from the cycle of repeated birth and death. A question might arise that If we are here in order to free ourselves from this birth-death cycle, then why do we come here only in the first place.
The answer to this question is two-fold.
First, we are here on account of our ignorance. According to the non-creation theory, the world does not have an objective existence. It appears only on account of ignorance and it is only because of this persisting ignorance that we keep transmigrating.
Secondly, an analogy might be given. We enter a maze only with the purpose of finding our way out of it. Similarly, the soul enters samsara only with the purpose of finding its way out of it!! However, these 4 goals too pertain only to the Jeeva or limited being at the gross level. For the Atman or Self that we are, there is neither duty, nor wealth, nor
pleasure nor even liberation as the soul is never bound in the first place. Bondage is only apparent and not factual!

chidananda rupah shivoham shivoham And so again at the end of this sloka Adi Shankara affirms that he is none of these qualities, possessions or goals and that We are that Immortal and Eternal Being of infinite bliss which is the Self of the Infinite Consciousness (Brahman or Shiva).

LOKA SAMASTA SUKHINO BHAVANTU SAMASTA SANMANGALANI BHAVANTU

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